Alcohol Use and Cancer American Cancer Society

Alcohol Use and Cancer American Cancer Society

26 iunie 2023
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A pooled analysis of data from 53 studies found for each alcoholic drink consumed per day, the relative risk of breast cancer increased by about 7% [23]. In addition to alcohol consumption, several other factors are known to increase the risk of developing stomach cancer. With the immune system being compromised, alcohol consumption can exacerbate damage from viral infections such as hepatitis C virus, which is common among chronic alcoholic liver disease patients [43]. In addition, heavy episodic alcohol use might reduce the immune system’s the three stages of alcoholism defence against infection by disrupting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines [33]. This is contrary to the increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to chronic alcohol exposure as discussed with other evidence on alcohol-induced inflammation (Section 3.3). Chronic alcohol consumption has been linked with decreased levels of retinoids in the liver [21], and low levels of retinol in the blood have been linked with higher risk of head and neck cancers [31].

  1. For example, one way the body metabolizes alcohol is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH, which converts ethanol into the carcinogenic metabolite acetaldehyde, mainly in the liver.
  2. Ethanol is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks, whether they are beers, wines, liquors (distilled spirits), or other drinks.
  3. Retinoid metabolism and the normal function of the immune system are both impaired by ethanol, while ethanol may lead to increases in sex hormone levels, as well as dysbiosis of the microbiome and liver cirrhosis.
  4. Heavy alcohol use has been shown to increase CYP2E1 expression in the oesophagus [27].
  5. Several studies have linked colon cancer to heavy, long-term use of alcohol.

It also found that, even among those who are aware, there’s a belief that it varies by the type of alcohol. For example, more participants were aware of the cancer risks from hard liquor and beer than about the risk from wine, with some participants believing wine lowers your cancer risk. Binge drinking increases the likelihood of health risks such as alcohol poisoning and accidents resulting in injury. It’s how much alcohol you drink that matters, and the more you drink the higher your risk of cancer.

Are there any health benefits from drinking alcohol?

Understanding these risks would lead to more fully informed decisions about alcohol use among individuals and families, including cancer survivors and those with a family cancer history. And as a physician, she thinks about the things she can say individually to a patient, one on one, to encourage them to reduce their drinking. „There’s pretty good data that you can get people to decrease their alcohol consumption with brief motivational information,” she said. The important thing to remember is that every time you drink, you increase your cancer risk.

7. Reduced Function of the Immune System

If you drink red wine in the hopes that you are protecting your heart health, I would look for other ways to do that. Some studies suggest that there are compounds in red wine that offer cardiovascular benefits. There are some cases during cancer treatment in which alcohol clearly should be avoided. For example, alcohol – even taking a responsible vacation while in recovery in very small amounts – can irritate mouth sores caused by some cancer treatments, and can even make them worse. Alcohol can also interact with some drugs used during cancer treatment, which might increase the risk of harmful side effects. It’s important to talk with your doctor about this if you are being treated for cancer.

Effects on other harmful chemicals

The participants were tracked for a median period of 11 years through linkage to health insurance records and death registers. People who use both alcohol and tobacco face a much higher risk of developing certain cancers. Compared with people who use either alcohol or tobacco alone, people who use both have a five times greater risk. ERs are important transcription factors within cells and may provide the main pathway by which alcohol promotes breast tumour growth [40].

No level of alcohol consumption is safe for our health

Once consumed, alcohol is metabolised by enzymes including alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and bacterial catalase, producing acetaldehyde [20]. Acetaldehyde is highly reactive towards DNA and has several carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. US adults beliefs about whether wine, beer, and liquor consumption is linked with cancer. The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015. What that means is that nations in those areas of Africa should be thinking now about strategies to control drinking. „Currently, only 16 of 46 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have national alcohol strategies,” says Rumgay.

Because these alleles are allocated at birth and are independent of other lifestyle factors (such as smoking), they can be used as a proxy for alcohol intake, to assess how alcohol consumption affects disease risks. People who said they had searched for cancer information were more likely to know about the cancer risks posed by drinking beer and by drinking liquor than those who did not. But awareness of the risk from drinking wine was similar in both those who had and hadn’t sought cancer information.

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK and drinking alcohol is one of the biggest risk factors for breast cancer. Around 1 in 10 breast cancer cases are caused by drinking alcohol, that’s about 4,400 cases a year. However, the link between alcohol and cancer recurrence is not known, especially for those who have completed cancer treatment. However, it’s best to avoid drinking after a cancer diagnosis, since it increases cancer risk.

A practical and extensive resource guide for women who want to understand and take charge of their own health and healthcare, presented in short, focused, easy-to-read chapters. For those who drink consistently, there are typically underlying issues that need to be addressed. “It is likely that many other breakdown products of alcohol are also carcinogenic, but acetaldehyde is the most widely known,” he added. Additionally, the IARC team found that acetaldehyde is what causes the damage. This website is using a security service to protect itself from online attacks.

Alcohol is the third biggest controllable risk factor for the disease, after tobacco smoking and excess weight. We know that alcohol increases the risk for several cancers, including oral cancer, pharynx and larynx cancers, colorectal and esophageal cancers, as well as liver and breast cancers. What this recommendation says is that when it comes to your cancer risk, the less you drink, the better. However, some individuals with the defective form of ALDH2 can become tolerant to the unpleasant effects of acetaldehyde and consume large amounts of alcohol. Epidemiologic studies have shown that such individuals have a higher risk of alcohol-related esophageal cancer, as well as of head and neck cancers, than individuals with the fully active enzyme who drink comparable amounts of alcohol (31). These increased risks are seen only among people who carry the ALDH2 variant and drink alcohol—they are not observed in people who carry the variant but do not drink alcohol.

“The high prevalence of cancer survivors engaged in hazardous drinking highlights the need for immediate interventions,” they wrote. Even as rates of heavy drinking have skyrocketed in the United States over the last few years, driven largely by the COVID pandemic, so has the realization that drinking has definite and serious harms, she continued. Alcohol and its byproducts can also damage the liver, leading to inflammation and scarring (cirrhosis). As liver cells try to repair the damage, they can end up with mistakes in their DNA, which could lead to cancer. Many people avoid quitting because the thought of quitting cold turkey is daunting. However, you are heading in the right direction even if you cut out one drink or cigarette daily while working out a plan with your provider.

While moderate alcohol use may increase cancer risk, the greatest risk occurs with heavy, long-term use. Emerging studies suggest that there is a strong link between alcohol consumption and the development of bowel cancer. “Reduction in exposure to acetaldehyde by reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption will reduce the chances of developing cancer, as well as damage to other organs like the liver and kidneys and urinary bladder,” he added. how to safely detox from alcohol at home It is important to emphasize that it is unclear the level of decreased risk linked with stopping alcohol consumption, or the length of time someone will experience the benefits of cutting out alcohol. They discovered that cessation does decrease the risk of some types of cancers, especially those that affect the mouth and esophagus. Researchers examined data from over 90 studies about cancers caused by alcohol and stopping alcohol consumption.

Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for cancer and has been linked to cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, liver, colorectum and breast. While studies have provided evidence on alcohol’s carcinogenic potential, further understanding of alcohol’s pathways to cancer development will inform the direction of future research. This information is useful to corroborate existing evidence, develop chemoprevention strategies, and could improve cancer therapy, but there is already a wealth of evidence to support the need for further alcohol control and cancer prevention efforts.

The nearly 4,000 people who took part in the survey were asked how much does drinking several types of alcohol (wine, beer, and liquor) affect the risk of getting cancer. For example, people who smoke and also drink alcohol are at a higher risk of mouth and upper throat cancers. Drinking alcohol doesn’t mean that you’ll definitely get cancer, but the risk is higher the more alcohol you drink. What’s more, the combination of drinking and smoking might indirectly increase the risk of cancer, with alcohol acting as a kind of solvent for the carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco.

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